Name: 
 

Practice 15-18



Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

The iron in our solar system was created from smaller mass atomic nuclei in  ______.
a.
the Earth
b.
our sun
c.
Jupiter
d.
the Big Bang
e.
supernovas
 

 2. 

An extrasolar planet is
a.
a planet that orbits our sun that we have not yet discovered.
b.
one not needed for the formation of our solar system which is kept in a special area just in case.
c.
a planet found orbiting around a star other than the sun.
d.
another name for an asteroid.
e.
a planet extra close to our sun.
 

 3. 

____ are located beyond the asteroid belt (3 AU)  from the sun, have extremely large masses and very low densities.
a.
Comets
b.
Extrasolar planets
c.
Asteroids
d.
Terrestrial planets
e.
Jovian planets
 

 4. 

The Galilean satellites
a.
orbit the planet Jupiter.
b.
orbit the Jovian planets.
c.
orbit asteroids.
d.
orbit Mars.
e.
orbit extrasolar planets.
 

 5. 

The first solid grains of ______ formed in hot regions near the sun. Much farther from the sun the first grains (or rather flakes) of ________also formed by a similar process as the close-in grains, _______.
a.
water ice; iron; accretion
b.
iron: water ice; accetion
c.
water ice; iron; condensation
d.
iron; water ice; condensation
 

 6. 

After the first solid grains formed in our solar system, these particles could then grow by the process of ____, the collision and sticking of one particle with another to continue the formation of planetesimals.  Each of these has many atoms or molecules.
a.
Accretion
b.
Sublimation
c.
Hydration
d.
Condensation
e.
Vaporization
 

 7. 

A newly formed planet or large asteroid becomes molten due to ______.
a.
the last infalling objects
b.
decay of radioactive element isotopes
c.
Both of the above
d.
None of the above.  Newly formed planets remain solid inside
 

 8. 

The Jovian problem refers to
a.
the high speed with which the Jovian planets rotate on their axes.
b.
the large number of satellites that orbit each Jovian planet.
c.
the existence of rings around the Jovian planets.
d.
the excess heat radiated by the larger of the Jovian planets.
e.
the apparently short period of time that disks exist around stars from which Jovian planets can form.
 

 9. 

Accretion is
a.
the adding of material to an object an atom or molecule at a time.
b.
the adding of material to an object by collection of solid particles.
c.
the release of gas from rocks as they are heated.
d.
the largest of the Galilean satellites.
e.
caused by the bombardment of the solar wind.
 

 10. 

Which one of the following IS a characteristic of Jovian planets?
a.
low average density
b.
orbits inside the asteroids
c.
craters in old surfaces
d.
small diameters
e.
very few satellites
 

 11. 

Which one of the following IS NOT a characteristic of terrestrial planets?
a.
low average density
b.
orbits inside the asteroids
c.
craters in old surfaces
d.
small diameters
e.
very few satellites
 

 12. 

A future news release might report that a new planet has been found around a star very similar to our sun. This newly discovered planet is claimed to have a mass 40 times that of Earth and is located nearly 25 AU from the star it orbits. Which of the following would be a reasonable prediction about this planet?

I.The planet will probably have a mean density of around 5 g/cm3.
II.The planet will probably have a radius of around five to ten times greater than Earth's.
III.The planet will probably have several satellites.
IV.The planet will probably have a composition that is mostly hydrogen and helium.
a.
I & IV
b.
I, II, & III
c.
II, III, & IV
d.
I, II, & IV
e.
I, II, III, & IV
 

 13. 

A(n) ____ is a solar system object that enters Earth's atmosphere and becomes very hot due to friction between the object and Earth's atmosphere and does not survive to reach the surface.
a.
asteroid
b.
meteor
c.
comet
d.
meteoroid
e.
planetesimal
 

 14. 

The age of the solar system is believed to be approximately 4.6 billions years based on the data from
a.
samples of lunar rocks.
b.
samples of Earth rocks.
c.
samples of meteorites.
d.
all of the above
e.
none of the above
 

 15. 

Once a terrestrial planet had formed from a large number of planetesimals, heat could have melted it and allowed it to differentiate into metallic core of ____density and a rocky mantle or crust of ______ density.
a.
higher; lower
b.
lower; higher
c.
Wrong!  The interior stays solid
d.
Wrong!  There is no separation according to density.
 

 16. 

The condensation sequence suggests that ____ should condense as solids closest to the sun.
a.
hydrogen and helium
b.
metals and metal oxides
c.
silicates
d.
ices of water, methane, and ammonia
 

 17. 

The large planetesimals would have grown faster than the smaller planetesimals because
a.
they were moving faster in their orbits than the smaller planetesimals.
b.
their stronger gravity would pull in more material.
c.
there was more material located near them that could be accreted.
d.
the smaller planetesimals were covered by a layer of material that was lost during collisions.
e.
all of the above
 

 18. 

Accretion among the grains in the solar nebula would have been aided by
a.
static electricity.
b.
gravity.
c.
high-velocity collisions.
d.
all of the above
e.
none of the above
 

 19. 

Part of the current atmosphere of Earth is believed to be
a.
the remnants of the original  hydrogen and helium gas from the solar nebula attracted by the protoplanet.
b.
the result of the melting and vaporizing of the glaciers from the last ice age.
c.
composed primarily of hydrogen and helium.
d.
composed of gases that were outgassed from the heated rocks sometime after the planet formed.
e.
the result of a collision between the sun and another star.
 

 20. 

The most important effect in clearing the solar nebula of gas and dust was
a.
impacts by planetesimals.
b.
the solar wind.
c.
the sun's magnetic field.
d.
the asteroid belt.
e.
radiation pressure.
 

 21. 

The uncompressed density of a planet in our solar system
a.
is greatest for the Jovian planets.
b.
is greatest for the planets closest to the sun.
c.
is greatest for the planets furthest from the sun.
d.
is greatest for the planets with the largest mass.
e.
is greatest of the planet with the largest radius.
 

 22. 

On a photograph of the moon, the moon measures 30 cm in diameter and a small crater measures 0.2 cm. The moon's physical diameter is 1738 km. What is the physical diameter of the small crater?
a.
about 1738 km
b.
about 12 km
c.
about 520 km
d.
about 350 km
e.
about 3.5 km
 

 23. 

The diagram below illustrates the radioactive decay of Potassium (40K), which has a half-life of 1.3 billion years. If a lunar rock is found that currently contains 5 grams of 40K, and it is determined that the sample contained 20 grams when it was formed, how old is the lunar rock?

mc023-1.jpg
a.
6.5 billion years
b.
19.5 billion years
c.
2.6 billion years
d.
3.9 billion years
e.
4.6 billion years
 

 24. 

The solar nebula theory is NOT able to explain which of the following observed characteristics of the solar system?  Another theory would be needed.
a.
Common direction of rotation of the planets.
b.
Common direction of revolution of the planets.
c.
The formation of hydrogen atoms in the solar system from subatomic particles.
d.
The density of the Jovian planets.
 

 25. 

What observation made of other stars seems to suggest the solar nebula hypothesis is correct?
a.
Stars are found to exist more often in binaries than by themselves.
b.
Protostars are seen to radiate much of their light at infrared wavelengths.
c.
Nearby stars tend to be low mass red dwarfs.
d.
Young stars are found to have hot disks that surround them.
 

 26. 

The asteroid belt is found between which two planets’ orbits?
a.
Earth and Mars
b.
Mars and Jupiter
c.
Jupiter and Saturn
d.
Venus and Earth
 

 27. 

How is radioactive dating used to determine the age of an object?
a.
Both the amounts of radioactive and decay material are measured.  Using these with  the radioactive material’s  half-life, the age can be estimated.
b.
The amount of radioactive material is measured.  Using this with  the radioactive material’s  half-life, the age can be estimated.
c.
The amount of decay material is measured.  Using this with  the radioactive material’s  half-life, the age can be estimated.
d.
The amount of heat generated by radioactive dating is measured to determine age.
 

 28. 

Which of the following is NOT one of the four stages in the development of a terrestrial planet?
a.
flooding
b.
cratering
c.
slow surface evolution
d.
fusion of hydrogen to helium
e.
differentiation
 

 29. 

That Earth ____ , evidence that Earth differentiated.
a.
rotates slowly
b.
has an average density that is higher than the density of the crust
c.
has a no magnetic field
d.
has a surface that is 75% water
e.
all of these
 

 30. 

Earth's magnetic field is generated by the dynamo effect in the
a.
molten metallic core.
b.
solid central core.
c.
plastic mantle.
d.
the crust.
e.
aurora.
 

 31. 

The oxygen in Earth's atmosphere
a.
was manufactured inside stars.
b.
was added to the atmosphere by plant life.
c.
has grown more abundant since the origin of Earth.
d.
all of these
e.
none of these
 

 32. 

The greenhouse effect occurs on Earth because carbon dioxide is
a.
transparent to visible light and opaque to infrared radiation.
b.
opaque to visible light and transparent to infrared radiation
c.
totally opaque to both visible light and infrared radiation
d.
totally opaque to both visible light and infrared radiation
 

 33. 

Which of these gases is most responsible for the greenhouse effect on Earth?
a.
oxygen (O2)
b.
nitrogen (N2)
c.
carbon dioxide (CO2)
d.
ozone (O3)
e.
ammonia (NH3)
 

 34. 

The Himalayan Mountains are rugged, jagged peaks and the Appalachians are smooth and rolling. Why is there a difference?
a.
The Himalayas are much older and the rocks have begun breaking off.
b.
The Himalayas are volcanic mountains and the Appalachians are not.
c.
The Appalachians are much older and have been smoothed by erosion.
d.
The Appalachians are younger and just started to be thrust upward by plate tectonics.
e.
a and d
 

 35. 

The ozone layer is
a.
transparent to ultraviolet radiation.
b.
opaque to ultraviolet radiation.
c.
opaque to visible light.
d.
opaque to infrared radiation.
e.
responsible for producing most of the oxygen that animal life needs.
 

 36. 

In the development of a terrestrial planet, the stage of ____ occurred when molten rock flowed through fissures and filled deep basins.
a.
differentiation
b.
cratering
c.
glaciation
d.
accretion
e.
flooding
 

 37. 

In the development of a terrestrial planet, the stage of ____ when dense material settled to the core and less dense to the outer parts.
a.
differentiation
b.
cratering
c.
glaciation
d.
accretion
e.
flooding
 

 38. 

Slow surface evolution is caused by
a.
wind erosion.
b.
plate tectonics.
c.
differentiation.
d.
all of the above
e.
a and b
 

 39. 

Motion of the plates of Earth's crust is thought to be due to
a.
the solar wind.
b.
convection from the hot interior.
c.
tides in the oceans.
d.
friction between wind and the land surface.
e.
Earth's magnetic field.
 

 40. 

Why would a decrease in the density of the ozone layer create a public health concern?
a.
The greenhouse effect would not be as efficient and the temperature of Earth would decrease.
b.
The greenhouse effect would be more efficient and the temperature of Earth would increase.
c.
Plant life would no longer have the ozone it needs for photosynthesis to create chlorophyll.
d.
Ultraviolet radiation from the sun would bombard Earth.
e.
none of the above
 

 41. 

Slow surface evolution on the moon is limited to
a.
low density masses of rock rising from the interior.
b.
low level meteorite impacts.
c.
moonquakes disturbing the surface features.
d.
motion along a network of small faults.
e.
all of the above
 

 42. 

The lunar maria are
a.
the lava plains of the lunar lowlands.
b.
the smooth plateaus of the lunar highlands.
c.
less than one billion years old.
d.
moving plates of lunar crust.
e.
older than the lunar highlands.
 

 43. 

The presence of vesicular basalts among the lunar rock samples shows that
a.
the lunar surface was fragmented by meteorite impacts.
b.
volcanism did not occur on the moon.
c.
the crust must have been made of anorthosite.
d.
molten lava once flowed over the lunar surface.
e.
the moon was once hit by a very large meteorite.
 

 44. 

Compared to the Earth, the moon is no longer geologically active because
a.
it is rotating too slowly.
b.
its radioactive elements were never abundant.
c.
it is much smaller in mass.
d.
its crust is too thin.
e.
it does not have water on its surface.
 

 45. 

In the giant impact theory of the Moon's origin,
a.
the Moon broke from a rapidly spinning Earth
b.
the Earth and its Moon formed from the same cloud of matter
c.
the Moon formed elsewhere in the solar nebula and was later captured by Earth.
d.
the Moon formed when a very massive planetesimal smashed into the young Earth.
 

 46. 

In the condensation theory of the Moon's origin
a.
the Moon broke from a rapidly spinning Earth
b.
the Earth and its Moon formed from the same cloud of matter
c.
the Moon formed elsewhere in the solar nebula and was later captured by Earth.
d.
the Moon formed when a very massive planetesimal smashed into the young Earth.
 

 47. 

The theory that Mercury shrank slightly when it was young has been proposed to explain
a.
extended lava plains.
b.
large craters.
c.
magnetic field.
d.
lobate scarps.
e.
regolith.
 

 48. 

That Mercury has a large iron core is evidenced by
a.
the large lobate scarps.
b.
the large mean density of Mercury.
c.
the lava flows near Caloris Basin.
d.
all of the above
e.
none of the above
 

 49. 

Which hypothesis concerning the formation of the Moon makes predictions that best fit the observed lunar data?
a.
The large impact hypothesis
b.
The fission hypothesis
c.
The capture hypothesis
d.
The condensation hypothesis
e.
The regolith hypothesis
 

 50. 

____ are believed to have formed on Mercury when the planet's interior cooled and shrank.
a.
Jumbled terrain
b.
The highlands
c.
Maria
d.
Lobate scarps
e.
Sinuous rilles
 

 51. 

The geology of Venus appears to be dominated by
a.
volcanism.
b.
plate tectonics.
c.
erosion by flowing water.
d.
impact cratering.
e.
strip mining.
 

 52. 

The surface of Venus has been studied
a.
using radar maps made from Earth.
b.
using radar maps made from satellites orbiting Venus.
c.
using spacecraft that have landed on the surface of Venus.
d.
all of the above
e.
only b and c
 

 53. 

The greenhouse effect keeps Venus hot because
a.
the atmosphere contains free oxygen.
b.
the atmosphere is predominently carbon dioxide.
c.
the surface converts infrared into visible radiation.
d.
the surface is free of sulfur compounds.
e.
the magnetic field traps a large number of particles from the solar wind.
 

 54. 

Which of the following supports the idea that the Martian crust is not divided into moving plates like those on Earth?

I.the size of Olympus Mons
II.the lack of folded mountain chains
III.the lack of rift valleys outlining entire plates
IV.the presence of dry river beds and sea floors
a.
I & II
b.
II & III
c.
II, III & IV
d.
I, II, & III
e.
I, II, III, & IV
 

 55. 

The graph below plots the escape velocity of each planet along the vertical axis and its surface temperature along the horizontal. The lines plotted in the figure are the speeds of the fastest gas particles as a function of temperature for various gases. Which of the gases plotted in the diagram could be retained in the atmosphere of Mars?

mc055-1.jpg
a.
only CO2
b.
only NH3
c.
CO2, NH3, and O2
d.
only H2
e.
H2 and He
 

 56. 

How rapidly a planet loses its atmosphere depends on the planet's

I.escape velocity (determined by mass and radius)
II.atmospheric composition
III.temperature
IV.rotation period
a.
I & II
b.
III & IV
c.
I, II, & III
d.
II, III, & IV
e.
I, II, III, & IV
 

 57. 

The crust of Mars is believed to ____ than Earth's.
a.
be much thinner
b.
be younger
c.
contain more water
d.
be more geologically active
e.
be much stronger
 

 58. 

The moons of Mars are believed to be
a.
composed primarily of iron and nickel.
b.
composed primarily of frozen gases of water and carbon dioxide.
c.
orbiting Mars in a direction opposite to the direction that Mars rotates.
d.
formed from material ejected from Olympus Mons and other large volcanoes on Mars.
e.
captured asteroids.
 

 59. 

Mars has a sufficient mass and a low enough temperature that water molecules could exist in its atmosphere as vapor. One reason Mars' atmosphere does not  contain a significant amount of water vapor is that 
a.
Mars formed in a part of the solar nebula that lacked oxygen.
b.
Mars formed in a part of the solar nebula that lacked hydrogen.
c.
All of the water vapor was released in the impact that formed Deimos.
d.
Ultraviolet radiation breaks the water molecule into less massive particles that can escape.
e.
The water molecule combines readily with chlorine to form hydrochloric acid.
 

 60. 

____ is a very long and deep canyon on Mars.
a.
Valles Marineris
b.
Ishtar Terra
c.
Tharsis Bulge
d.
Lobate Scarp
e.
Phobos
 

 61. 

Besides Earth, which of the terrestrial planets and/or satellites of terrestrial planets show(s) evidence for the possible existence of liquid water flowing on its surface in the past?
a.
Venus
b.
The Moon
c.
Phobos
d.
Mars
e.
None of the terrestrial planets or satellites show such evidence.
 

 62. 

Most terrestrial planets have portions of their surface that appear to be significantly older than other portions of their surface. What evidence suggests that the surface of Venus is all of the same age?
a.
Photos taken by probes that landed on Venus showed that all of the rocks were of the same age.
b.
The craters on Venus are randomly distributed in size and number across the surface.
c.
The volcanoes on Venus are not found in isolated groups, but are scattered around the planet.
d.
a and b
e.
all of the above
 

 63. 

The moon's distance from Earth is measured very accurately by bouncing a laser beam off of a small mirror left on the surface of the moon. If a laser is fired at the moon and the signal returns in 2.6 seconds, what is the distance to the moon?
a.
390,000 km
b.
390,000 m
c.
780,000 km
d.
780,000 m
 

 64. 

The greenhouse effect produces excess heat in a planet's atmosphere by
a.
trapping infrared radiation from escaping into space.
b.
clouds blocking the surface from receiving any infrared radiation.
c.
trapping light gases from escaping into space.
d.
trapping ultraviolet light in the upper atmosphere of the planet.
 

 65. 

Mercury's major atmospheric gas is
a.
oxygen.
b.
hydrogen.
c.
carbon dioxide.
d.
Misleading; the atmosphere is virtually nonexistent.
 

 66. 

Why does Mars have seasons similar to the Earth?
a.
Mars is roughly the same distance from the sun as Earth.
b.
Mars has the same size as the Earth.
c.
The shape of Mars' orbit is the same as the Earth's.
d.
Mars' rotational axis is tilted relative to its orbit like the Earth's.
 

 67. 

Both Jupiter and Saturn
a.
have liquid metallic hydrogen in their interiors.
b.
have rings.
c.
emit more energy than they absorb from the sun.
d.
have belt and zone circulation.
e.
all of the above
 

 68. 

At Jupiter's very center is a core of
a.
heavy element (molten rock and iron) core
b.
helium
c.
hydrogen
d.
Both A and B
 

 69. 

In terms of mass, Jupiter  is made mostly of
a.
rock.
b.
molten iron.
c.
water.
d.
hydrogen and helium.
e.
carbon dioxide.
 

 70. 

____ are Kuiper belt objects that are in a 3:2 resonance orbit with the orbit of Neptune.
a.
Plutinos
b.
Charons
c.
Protons
d.
Lepton
e.
Resonons
 

 71. 

The grooved terrain found on Ganymede is believed to be
a.
flow channels or liquid water.
b.
flow channels or liquid methane.
c.
a system of faults in the crust.
d.
the peaks of water waves in a large ocean.
e.
caused by meteor impacts with the surface of Ganymede.
 

 72. 

As a moon in a very elliptical orbit moves closer to and then farther from a planet, gravity flexes the moon with tides, and friction heats the interior. This process is referred to as
a.
tidal heating.
b.
occultation.
c.
vaporization.
d.
differentiation.
e.
sublimation.
 

 73. 

Belt and zone circulation
a.
occurs on Jupiter.
b.
occurs on Saturn
c.
is caused by rising and sinking gases.
d.
is more obvious on Jupiter than on Saturn.
e.
All the above
 

 74. 

____ in Saturn's rings is/are produced by the gravitational interaction of Mimas with the particles in the rings and appears as a large ____ in the rings.
a.
Cassini’s division;  gap
b.
Cassini’s division; clump
c.
Moons; gap
d.
Moons; clump
 

 75. 

The old surfaces of icy satellites of Jovian planets
a.
appear dark in color with few impact craters.
b.
appear dark in color with many impact craters.
c.
appear very bright because ice is very reflective.
d.
generally show long bright grooves and a modest number of impact craters.
e.
generally have small volcanoes that are active.
 

 76. 

Which of these Galilean satellites is most geologically active?
a.
Io
b.
Europa
c.
Callisto
d.
Ganymede
 

 77. 

The Galilean satellites orbit
a.
Jupiter
b.
Saturn
c.
Uranus
d.
Neptune
e.
All of the above.
 

 78. 

Which of the following objects may have organic particles on its surface as a result of the interaction of sunlight with methane in its upper atmosphere?
a.
Io
b.
Titan
c.
Mimas
d.
Ganymede
e.
Callisto
 

 79. 

Jupiter and Saturn emit ____ heat than absorbed from the Sun due to _____ is the result of____
a.
excess;   nuclear reactions in their liquid metallic hydrogen cores.
b.
less;   nuclear fusion of hydrogen to helium  in their liquid metallic hydrogen cores.
c.
excess; heat left over from their formation
d.
less;   heat left over from their formation
 

 80. 

The atmosphere of ____ contains mostly nitrogen with some methane.
a.
Jupiter
b.
Earth’s Moon
c.
Callisto
d.
Titan
e.
Miranda
 

 81. 

Which of these are nearly 90 degrees to the orbit plane of Uranus
a.
Uranus’ equator
b.
The orbit planes of its major satellites
c.
The orbit plane of its rings
d.
All of the above.
 

 82. 

Uranus and Neptune do not contain liquid metallic hydrogen because they
a.
are not massive enough.
b.
do not contain enough hydrogen.
c.
rotate too slowly.
d.
are too far from the sun.
e.
have magnetic fields that are much too weak.
 

 83. 

The rings of Uranus were discovered during ______
a.
an occultation of a star by the rings (as well as by the planet)
b.
during an eclipse of one of the moons by the rings.
c.
a voyage to Uranus by astronauts
d.
as Uranus and the rings passed behind Jupiter.
e.
an encounter by th Voyager 1 space probe.
 

 84. 

The narrowness of the rings of Uranus and Neptune is believed to be caused by
a.
gravitational interactions between ring particles.
b.
a spiral density wave which confines them.
c.
the magnetic field which holds them in place.
d.
the smaller mass of Uranus and Neptune as compared to that of Saturn.
e.
small shepherd moons that orbit near the rings.
 

 85. 

Some narrow rings of Saturn are seen in space probe photos to be caused by
a.
gravitational interactions between ring particles.
b.
a spiral density wave which confines them.
c.
the magnetic field which holds them in place.
d.
small shepherd moons that orbit inside and outside the rings
 

 86. 

Which of the following are found on Triton?
a.
craters
b.
flooded basins
c.
atmospheric clouds
d.
a thick nitrogen atmosphere
e.
all of the above
 

 87. 

Jupiter does not have
a.
a hot interior.
b.
convection occurring in its atmosphere.
c.
crustal plates on its surface.
d.
a dynamo effect.
e.
any rings.
 

 88. 

The graph below plots the escape velocity of several solar system objects along the vertical axis and the surface temperature along the horizontal axis. The lines plotted in the figure are the speeds of the fastest gas particles as a function of temperature for various gases. Which of the objects in this diagram has the greatest surface temperature?

mc088-1.jpg
a.
Ganymede
b.
Pluto
c.
Titan
d.
Triton
e.
Miranda
 

 89. 

____ is a satellite of Pluto.
a.
Miranda
b.
Charon
c.
Venus
d.
Krypton
e.
Nereid
 

 90. 

The diagram below shows a cross section of the interior of Uranus. Which of the regions do current computer models suggest is composed primarily of liquid water?  The lowest pressure regions will be gaseous.

mc090-1.jpg
a.
region 1
b.
region 2
c.
region 3
d.
all of the regions
e.
none of the regions
 

 91. 

Uranus and Neptune appear blue or blue-green because
a.
their atmospheres absorb blue light very efficiently.
b.
their solid air-less surfaces are this color
c.
their surfaces are covered with liquid water with no atmosphere
d.
traces of methane in  their atmospheres absorb red light very efficiently.
 

 92. 

Europa has few craters because
a.
it is protected from impacts by Jupiter's gravity.
b.
it does not have a solid surface.
c.
it has erased craters nearly as fast as they have formed.
d.
its surface is not strong enough to support craters.
e.
it keeps one face always pointed toward Jupiter which screens it from incoming meteorites.
 

 93. 

Saturn's rings are
a.
composed of ice particles.
b.
in the plane of the planet's equator.
c.
within the planet's Roche limit.
d.
all of the above
e.
none of the above
 

 94. 

What causes the geological activity seen on some of the inner moons of Jupiter?
a.
Constant collisions with space debris provide a power source for geological activity.
b.
The strong magnetic field of Jupiter heats the surface of the inner moons.
c.
Tidal friction as a result of being so close Jupiter heats their interiors.
d.
Solar radiation reflected of Jupiter's surface provides a power source for geological activity.
 

 95. 

Why is it believed that the rings of Saturn could not have formed just as the planet itself formed?
a.
Over time the solar wind should have blown away the particles in the rings.
b.
The particles in the rings should eventually fall into the planet in a short period of time.
c.
The rings are made of ice particles which would have been vaporized by the heat released as Saturn formed
d.
The outer planets do not have enough mass to hold on to the rings.
 

 96. 

What type of geological activity is seen on Neptune's moon Triton?
a.
Plate tectonics and earthquakes are a common occurrence on Triton.
b.
Volcanoes of molten lava, similar to Earth, have been seen there.
c.
Geysers of liquid nitrogen are seen erupting from its surface.
d.
Geysers of liquid water are seen erupting from its surface.
 

 97. 

Which moon of the Jovian planets has a thick, hazy atmosphere?
a.
Io
b.
Triton
c.
Europa
d.
Titan
 

 98. 

Why is Saturn's moon Titan able to retain an atmosphere?.....
a.
Titan only contains light gases which are easy to retain.
b.
Titan has a large enough mass and is cold enough.
c.
Titan is biologically active.
d.
It is so close to Saturn that Saturn's gravity retains Titan's atmosphere.
 

 99. 

What is one possible reasons Jupiter and Saturn radiate more energy than they receive from the sun?
a.
Magnetic and electric fields heat the planet.
b.
Fusion reactions of hydrogen into helium inside the planet provide an additional heat source.
c.
The planets are still radiating heat from when they first formed.
d.
Friction between the planet and its moons heat the planet.
 

 100. 

Why is Saturn oblate?
a.
The gravity of its moons flattens the planet.
b.
The rapid rotation of the planet flattens it.
c.
It formed that way originally and has no way to reshape itself.
d.
The magnetic fields of Jupiter and Saturn interact and cause the planet to flatten.
 

True/False
Indicate whether the statement is true or false.
 

 101. 

The oldest objects found so far in our solar system are Earth rocks that are 3.9 billion years old.
 

 102. 

The Earth never passed through the cratering stage in planetary development.
 

 103. 

The central part of Earth's core is solid.
 

 104. 

The greenhouse effect occurs because carbon dioxide is opaque to infrared radiation.
 

 105. 

The moon stopped evolving because it is too small to have kept its internal heat.
 

 106. 

Outgassing produces gas rich in carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water vapor.
 

 107. 

Radar maps of Venus show impact craters.
 

 108. 

Valles Marineris is a long valley on Mars believed to resemble the rift valleys of eastern Africa.
 

 109. 

The size of Olympus Mons suggests that the crust of Mars is very thick.
 

 110. 

Satellites that lack craters are generally old, inactive bodies.
 



 
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